Team Durafet

About Us

This team combines expert researchers from multiple groups; Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Sea-Bird Scientific/Satlantic and Honeywell. This group came together in 2008 with the single focus of repackaging the standard Durafet to operate at the high pressures of the deep ocean. In a major development project spanning five years, a prototype high-pressure package was designed, built, calibrated, and tested in the laboratory and on moorings and CTD Rosette samplers. This work demonstrated accurate, precise and stable operation to 2,000 m depths. The sensor has now been launched on 20 profiling floats at sites ranging from the tropics to the ice-covered waters of Antarctica. These floats are of the same type used in the Argo array and operate to depths of 2 km. With a five-year lifetime, the floats and Deep-Sea DuraFET sensors enable the foundations of a global ocean pH observing system. This effort received the National Oceanographic Partnership Program 2014 Excellence in Partnering Award. The Deep-Sea DuraFET pH sensor system is a core tool for the new Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling Program. SOCCOM is a six-year initiative funded by the National Science Foundation with additional support from NOAA, and NASA to observe the impacts of a changing climate on the carbon and nitrogen cycles of the southern ocean. The high-pressure pH sensor is in transition to become commercially available from Sea-Bird Scientific.

About Team Leader

Robert J. Carlson is a senior technical manager at Honeywell Aerospace’s Advanced Technology Group. Mr. Carlson graduated from the University of Minnesota B.Phys. in 1973 and B.E.E. in 1974. Experience includes 40 years in development and production of micro-fabricated ICs, semiconductors, optoelectronics, sensors and MEMS. He manages the micro-fabrication facility in Plymouth, Minnesota, home of many advanced microstructures with successful transitions to production. He is Six Sigma Black Belt certified and Project Management Professional certified (PMP). Mr. Carlson has authored papers in journals of AVS, IEEE, SPIE, APE, ECS, and holds six+ patents. He has experience with managing large projects like construction and occupancy of laboratory buildings, and large software development and deployment. Among his current assignments is managing the production and engineering of the ISFET pH sensing chip used in Honeywell’s Durafet device.

Kenneth S. Johnson is a senior scientist at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. He received his B.S. degrees in oceanography and in chemistry from the University of Washington in 1975 and his Ph.D. in Oceanography from Oregon State University in 1979. His research interests are focused on the development of chemical sensors that can be deployed on a global scale, wireless sensor networks and application of these tools to study chemical cycling throughout the ocean. His Chemical Sensor Lab has developed sensors for a variety of nutrient chemicals and pH and analytical systems for trace elements such as iron, cobalt, manganese and zinc. Many of these systems have been transitioned to commercial products to ensure their availability to the research and monitoring community. The sensors are integrated into commercially available platforms and sensor networks are deployed throughout coastal ocean and open ocean regions. A particular focus of the Lab is on developing chemical sensors that can be deployed on profiling floats of the type used in the Argo array. Johnson was elected chair of the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) in 1994 and served four years in that position. He was American Geophysical Union Sverdrup Lecturer in 1994 and was elected Fellow of the American Geophysical Union in 2011.

Team Members

Bob Carlson
Kenneth Johnson
Todd Martz
Jim Hochstein
Keith Brown
Hans Jannasch
Luke Coletti
Ronnie Van Dommelen
Dave Murphy

Thomas Mitchell
Team Leader:
Bob Carlson
Plymouth, MN, United States

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